The Fish Story of Katsuo

by Jyo Syowai Villa

“Oh, you are here already!” said the fisherman with his professional smiling reception, “Please wait a minute for I am a little busy”

“No problem,” responded by four of us in the typical polite Japanese styles, “we have plenty of time” Actually, though, we really could not control our desire for the fish that was maybe the most delicious fish we have ever eaten.

“Please come in, please, the rain is heavy. Come here and I will show you fish”

It is an average day in June, and still in the mouldy rainy season. The fish shop is not so crowded as we had expected, so it is easy for us to have a relaxed talk with the fisherman.

The young gun received us warmly, he owns a classic fisherman’s face of and a skillful fisherman’s hand which quickly cut the whole fresh fish into two big pieces in a few minutes and earned our applause.

Of course he is an experienced fisherman. He explained that his family had been doing this job ever since his grandfather. Under the man’s guidance we roast the katsuo smoothly within 10 minutes we start to enjoy the meal.

“Do you think the katsuo will become more and more popular in the future?”

His answer was unexpected. The fisherman did not look hopeful. On the contrary, he give us a reality situation that we should not avoid .

“In the future katsuo will become less and less until one day it will not be able for people to eat .” The expression is firm during his speaking and it seems to be that he really wants everybody understands this fact.

When I ask my classmates at Kochi university and other local residents what they associate with Kochi, they invariably answer “katsuo”. In the whole Japanese nation there is no place that is more fond of katsuo than Kochi. Just have a look at one of the mascots of this town. When the katsuo “Yuru-kyara” gives you a hug, won’t you be surprised!

But hidden behind the katsuo industry’s prosperity is a looming crisis. The amount of katsuo caught by Japanese fishermen is decreasing year by year. That is really a big problem.

According to an investigation into katsuo maguro’s resource shows that the catches started to fall from 1980. At that time the katsuo that is catched by fishermen all over the world is about 720,000t per year , in the year of 2005 it is about 430,000 per year.although the amount of katsuo still occupies a great proportion in the whole fish ,but from 1984 the tendency of decrease is remarkable

“Some foreign countries do work much more than they should, for example overfishing, Sometimes they even take the young fry to can and sell it to make a lot of profit. For us fishermen that is a disaster “

The crashing of fish stocks can’t just be blamed on foreign countries, though. Beginning in 1960s, the Japanese economy stepped into a growth period and the demand for the land increased rapidly. People started marine land reclamation. And in places like Isahaya, which is called the uterus of the ariake sea, has also been in serious trouble.

“Do you know the kuroshio current?” asked our guide. “Every year fish give birth to their child at the upper reaches of kurosio, and after one year the small fish grow up and swim along with the kurosio to come to Japan and we can get a big harvest. But that is in the past. Nowdays, some people do great damage at the upper reaches of kurosio, and the consequence is that the price of katsuo is going up and up today.”

We don’t need to worry about that katsuo will disappear soon in future but we have to worry that as with the price growth developed. For residents in Kochi, katsuo will change from a common food which can be bought in the supermarket to a kind of luxury food which can be only eaten at the high level hotel.

“In the future, if you want to eat katsuo, the only choice will be to go to Hawaii not kochi”bHe said it just liking taking about a joke. Everybody laughed with a nervously.

But there is another reason for worry that is often ignored: the world is changing and the world’seating habits are changing with them. In the past, Europeans, Americans, Chinese and Indian people refused to eat sashimi. But as the global economy developed, people in those areas have started to accept raw fish. People in America and Europe are in trouble with their obesity caused by the unhealthy diet so they look for fish to improve the situation. As a consequence, the fishing fleets have increased and the fish stocks decreased.

A new quarrel has appeared. The whole world are advising people to take a healthy diet at present in the end it brings a great disaster to fish. That is why when our fisherman commented on the katsuo Yuru-kyara which is Kochi’s character he called it “baka.”

At last when the fish man was asked about his future plan if katsuo disappear, he said “we have no idea but to choice other fish.” I couldn’t help wondering if that is really useful.

Our time is up and we need to go,when we separated, we turn back to have a look at the fisherman’s figure ,he was still standing there showing his strong professional spirit .And we wondered after 5 years or after ten years ,do this gun still have the opportunity to sell the fish with his professional smile?

Tosa Jiro: Jiro to be like Jiro

By Keisuke Toda

It was sunny day that the sun beat down unsparingly, as if it was a sign of summer. I visited Mr. and Mrs. Komatsu to eat phantom chicken that is called “Tosa Jiro”. The bus moved through a steep, narrow mountain road for 40 minutes from Aki station, to the little village of Hatayama where there was a guest house “Hatayama onsen ikoi no ie” (畑山温泉 憩の家)” run by Mr. and Mrs. Komatsu of Aki city, Kochi, Japan.

The guest house is surrounded by greenery and ajisai (Japanese hydrangea) blossoms in full glory and this good atmosphere made my heart leap with anticipation. The guest house also serves as a restaurant and there is also hot spring. That day, I had a rich chicken lunch in the guest house and learned so much about the Tosa Jiro chicken.

I was served chicken sashimi that included parts of organs, tataki that is breast meat lightly grilled on the outside, a bowl of rice topped with chicken and eggs cooked together. The dishes were so delicious because Tosa Jiro chicken has a strong clear and juicy chicken taste. And I had never eaten chicken’s sashimi before. I ate chicken’s heart, white meat, liver, gizzard, cookstomb, and milt. Each part had a lightly sweet, amazing taste.

Tosa Jiro is a kind of chicken which is a first-filial-generation hybrid by crossing a male “Tosa Jidori” originally comes from Japan and a female “Rhode Island Red” originally comes from Japan.

“‘Tosa Jidori’ is a Kochi prefectural natural monument,” explained Ms. Komatsu, “so, it is forbidden to eat ‘Tosa Jidori’.” But its offspring, ‘Tosa Jiro’, is quite delicious.

Ordinary, chicken meat cannot be eaten raw, but Tosa Jiro is because of the special methods they use to raise them.

“Broilers are the main chicken that are sold in common supermarkets” said Keiko Komatsu. “They are raised for about 30 days, given a large amount of food, and shipped to market. The bigger chicken farmers make,” she pointed out, “the more they can get money. For the poultry industry, the main goal is high quantity at low cost. And it’s not an easy job because the cost of chickens is 20 to 30 yen per 100g. But most growers don’t consider the chicken’s healthy and don’t raise it to be eaten raw. In short, people usually eat immature chickens that have been made fat unnaturally.”

But that’s not what Komatsu-san does.

“Tosa Jiro are raised by a completely different method,” she explains. “They are raised for 150 days without rushing in an environment as close to nature as possible, and shipped as a healthy, adult Chicken.” They breed their chickens in large place on the ground and feed them mainly non-modified corn,and fish meal, rice, organically produced vegetables and so on. They also eat grit for their gizzards.

“This is what makes Tosa Jiro tastes so delicious,” Seiichi said.

A chicken’s gizzard is the thick-walled part of a bird’s stomach used for griding food, typically with grit. But it is still working without food, and grit are fined out by rubbing against each other. Fine grit is pulverized and absorbed as minerals in the blood and circulate around the body. It causes a loss of body odor in the chicken.

Chickens were originally prey in in the wild and developed this means to protect themselves from predators. In the modern bird, the meat loses the chicken’s peculiar odor and becomes delicious as a result.

Like many rural villages in Kochi, Hatayama has been in long, slow decline. In 1954, it merged with Aki city and as a result, the population began decreasing. Many local people left there to look for work, but Komatsu is one of the few stubborn holdouts. He determined that if there were few jobs, he’d better just make one for himself.

“I knew if I built a business around Tosa Jiro chicken, it’s gonna be the only one like it,” said Seiichi Komatsu. He and his wife are farmers, the only people who are raising Tosa Jiro for meat in Japan (other farmers raise it for its eggs). Komatsu was once a carpenter, but he quit his job and started the new Tosa Jiro industry in 1988.

There were many problems about breeding Tosa Jiro, and he has gotten through then.
There are some problems about Tosa Jiro now. But those problems will make Tosa Jiro special.

“If everybody can make it easily, it won’t true a local speciality, ” said Seiichi Komatsu.

Now, 5000~7000 people, including celebrities and magazine writers visit them to seek ‘Tosa Jiro’ per a year. But celebrity is not Komatsu’s main focus. It’s all about chicken.

“I can PR, appeal Tosa Jiro with confidence,” said Keiko, “for people who are seeking security, safety, delicious food. I think Tosa Jiro is great chicken. And the business might be critical for the local area. But, I don’t want to think about only the economy.”

She put all her cards on the table. “I truly want to breed Jiro to be like Jiro.”


Chub mackerel

by T. Nishida

Scomber japonicus, or the Chub mackerelhas been eaten long by Japanese. Scomber japonicus is one of Scomber. Japanese eat many S.japonicus every year. S.japonicus in Miyagi is became brand and called “KINKA SABA”. Its name is different from each area. For example it is called Hirasaba in Kochi and Shizuoka, Hirasu in Nagasaki, Takkuri in Kagoshima, Honsaba in some area.


Family is Scombriae, genus is Scomber and species is S.japonicus. There are is four varieties of the genus Scomber: Scomber colias, Scomber scombrus, Scomber australasicus and Scomber japonicus. S.colias range from western the Atlantic Ocean and resemble S.japonicus in form. S.scombrus ranging from northern the Atlantic Ocean. S.australasicus have many black spots on belly. S.japonicus resemble S.australasicus in form but it don’t have a black spot on belly.


S.japonicus is fifty centimeters long. Their body is slender and ellipse. Their scale is small. Lateral line’s scale is 210 to 220. Back is greenish-blue and black curved lines. Belly is silver and white.


S.japonicus live facing warm current of semitropic and temperate water. They like water temperature of 14 to 17 degrees.


S.japonicus make cloud and swim surface coast. It travel to north on spring and south on fall. It travel 10km per a day. There are shoal which stay around area of rock too. It eats small fish, zooplankton and cephalopod. The laying eggs season is February to August. They lay eggs which is 1mm across and a number of eggs are from 100000 to 1400000. Many fry are eaten by other fishes because they are not protected by parents. Its life span is 6 to 7 years.


S.japonicus is eaten by human all over the world and it become supplement because they contain a lot of DHA and EPA. Its season is fall and winter, but it is bad on summer. When we eat it, we mind Anisakis. Anisakis is worm and finally parasite on mammals. We especially mustn’t eat raw fish.

S.japonicus is eaten by people of Kochi, but S.australasicus is more famous than S.japonicus in Koch. It is because in southwest Kochi catch S. australasicus which is called “Shimizusaba” by Tosa. Its season is fall to winter but we can eat all the them year around. It is delicious so it is famous in Japan.


S.japonicus are not protected because they are plentiful.

Web Resources

Japanese Jack Mackerel:Trachurus japonicus

by Y. Kinoshita


All season in Japan Trachurus japonicus was familiar to the public food fish since ancient times. Specially fish has is plenty of fat on it as is regarded “fine fish”

Description & Taxonomy

The total full length of adult is 50 cm. But must fish are 30cm. Body color and body shape: color of dorsal is green black Ventral is silvery white. On the lateral line they have 69-73 a scale of spine. Anterior dorsal fin has 3-9 spines; the second having 1 spine and usually 18-37 soft rays . Anal spines usually 3, the first 2 separate from the rest; soft rays usually 15-31.It has Widely forked caudal fin . the Caudal peduncle is slender. Pelvic fins are fins lacking in Parona signata. Vertebrae 24-27 . Fast swimming predators of the waters above the reef and in the open sea . Some root in sand for invertebrates and fishes . It is one of the most important families of tropical marine fish. It is fished commercially and for recreation.

The family Carangidae belongs to the Class Actinopterygii and the Order Perciformes. It contains 33 genera and 140 species. Its ranges are northeast of Taiwan and southwest of Kyushu. Migratory type is swimming in the middle depths for a school the other hand root type is sedentary a reef of shallow not a seasonal migration. It Eats plankton, crustaceans, polychaetes, squid, and other small fish. The Kurosio current play important roles in transporting jack Trachurus japonicuss

Range & Ecology

In the western Pacific endemic species a distributional range is Hokkaido to the East China sea. Some of Trachus Japonicus separate group for each region,which are only slightly different in the gene pool and morphology ,ecology,a spawning ground,morphology main group is Kochi ,near Izu Kanto, the Inland sea of japan.

Use & Conservation

As important food in Japan,caught by set net fishing ,a round heal net ,a dragnet,a gill net,fishing,etc Catch up a lot of fish in a variety of fishing. Summer is the season for Trachus japonica.


You can see Trachus japonica in Kochi Katurahama Aquarium and the Ashizuri sea building.


Imokempi: Hard or Soft?

by Emiko

The sun is dazzling as the temperature soars above thirty degrees Celsius.  The day is too hot, but Obiyamachi is full of energy because it’s Sunday the scene of the Sunday street market. A lot of stalls  stretch as far as eye can see. There are fruits, vegetables, tea, steel products and so on.  My friend and I enter a shopping arcade because we want to stay out of the sunlight, and we discover a store which sell imokenpi. There is a clerk who looks to be 50 or 60 years old moving around the shop. Sometimes she stops to talk with customers. This store, called “Kenpiya”,  has many flavors of imokenpi– there are salt, sesame dark brown sugar and dried green seaweed. What they have in common is that they are all hard. Continue reading Imokempi: Hard or Soft?

Let’s Have Tea Time

by Kasumi

Sweat is running on my face under the glaring sun one day in the middle of July. My friend and I have walked around Sunday Market all morning, and we’re now sitting in a comfortable Japanese-style room in Tosa-cha cafe. Though before noon, it is full of customers of all ages. Cold Tosa tea served as soon as we sat looked like bitter and astringent, but it is easy to drink. Fresh taste cooled me down and I could sense a little sweetness. There is a teapot in which are a few tea leaves cup, pottery and green tea cake on the table. Chartreuse tea is shining in a cup. I’m little confused because of preparation methods of green tea one of staffs taught us. Hot Tosa tea tastes more bitter than the cold one, but it’s perfect with sweet cake. I can’t help saying “This is so good!”. I find that taking enough time and many steps are important to make better tea. I’m feeling the slow-passing time for a long time. Continue reading Let’s Have Tea Time

Gingerly Ginger

by Sayana

When I was a little child and caught a cold, my mother would make ginger tea for me explaining why it was so good for me. “Of course it’s good for you,” she would say, “It makes you warm and it also relieves your symptoms.”

The recipe my mother used is simple. First, grate some ginger. Next, add sugar or honey and dilute it with water. Finally, boil it for 10 to 20 minutes. That’s all! How simple! Just give it a go! Continue reading Gingerly Ginger

Bata: Orthoptera Caelifera

Locust is a general term for nimalia Arthropoda Insecta Orthoptera Caelifera. In the family along with Pyrgomorphidae Acrididae Tetrigidae and so.

Locusta migratoria

They hop along because their hind legs are well developed and they have ala. The front ala is thin and opaque, while the hind ala is thick and clear. Total length is about 35mm ~ 65mm and body color is protectively colored green and brown. This color matches with their habitat, but, in high population density, it becomes a blackish color.

They live in dry grassy areas in the Tropic and Temperate zones. Like the Katydids and the cricket, it is an Orthoptera and has a similar form but is actually quite different. Compared with the Katydids and the cricket, the locust’s rearing environment is an arid zone, short plants and open ground. Other example, the locust’s body is long in front and behind, ear in the chest, the female’s ovipositor isn’t long, and most of the kinds female is bigger than male.

They are incomplete metamorphosis. (Egg – larva – Imago) Eggs is laid in shallow earth. When larva. they have no ala but as imagoes develop ala, females get an ovipositor. In Japan, imagoes die in winter so, eggs stay over the winter.

Migratory locust often cause severe damage to agricultural areas. The plural locust is called Migratory. They are often locust plague and eat a lot of grass. No grass land cause many disaster. These past few years, it aren’t many examples like this in Japan because of agricultural chemicals and breeding environment’s destruction.

There arre about 5,500 kinds of locust in the world, and about 445 kinds of locust in Japan. Locusta migratoria, length about 40mm ~ 70mm, body color is green or brown and, live in grassland. Gastrimargus marmoratus, length about 40mm ~ 60mm, body color is green or brown and, black markings for its hind leg. The Acrida cinerea, lengths is about 50mm ~ 80mm, there is a difference in female and male. For example, length (females are bigger than males), jump (females can’t jump so far), and male scan chirp.

We can see many locust every day, but don’t know well about them.

Ginbuna: Carassius langsdorfii

Carassius langsdorfii (Ginbuna)

Carassius langsdorfii is a fresh water fish which grows to about 30 centimeters in 4 to 5 years. Carassius langsdorfii belongs Carassius, Carassius of Cyprinidae, it is belongs Cypriniformes, Cypriniformes of Osteichthyes. Almost all Japanese people called them “Ginbuna”, few people call them “mabuna”. Carassius langsdorfii total length is 15 to 30 centimeters. Carassius rangsdorfii’s body get narrow at back of starting buttock fin. “fubunkinanjo” is 4 , “bunkinanjo” is 15 to 18 at dorsal fin. “fubunkinanjo” is 3, “bunkinanjo” is 5 at buttock fin.

Carassius langsdorfii usually grows in Japanese river where flow is mild. Carassius langsdorfii live in ponds and lower of rivers. Carassius langsdorfii is omnivorous fish, for example they eat zoo plankton adhesion seaweed and water animals that live in bottom. The other,

Carassius langsdorfii eats killifish.

Breeding or spawning on be water-weed in spring. But Carassius langdorfii’s reproduction is divided two types, one is asexual reproduction the other is sexual reproduction. Carassius langsdofii is mostly female. It is a kind of asexual reproduction. First, female Carassius langsdorfii produce her coulomb. Afterward, coulomb grows up and goes through this reproduction. But, Carassius langsdorfii’s sexual reproduction is special too. First, female Carassius langsdorfii

blows egg. Then, male Carassius spray sperm. For example, Carassius buergeri subsp called “kinbuna”, Carassius auratus subsp< called “nagabuna” and Carassius buergeri grandoculis called “nigorobuna”are included in Carassius. Afterward, Carassius langdorfii’s female flies are born and grow up. When do Carassius langdorfii

Carassius langsdorfii are used in cultivation with carp in reservoirs and a follow fields in Ueta-city, Toumi city and Saku-city in Nagano. Lately, Carassius langsdorfii are not used for food too. But, at present, Carassius langsdorfii are used for food in Hachirougata-town in Akita. Carassius langsdorfii’s source is Tone-river in Chiba, Biwa-lake in Shiga and so on. Main recipe is roastsd fish sprinkled with salt, “kanro-ni”, soup and sashimi. But, it must not be eaten as is saw, because Carassius langsdorfii is Intermediate host of Gnathostoma spinigerum. There are local specialties called “funamiso” in Aichi and Gifu. Besides, there are local specialties called “funameshi” in Okayama. Carassius langsdorfii is plain taste. Besides, local specialties called “teppai” in Kagawa. Carassius langsdorfii

is a popular fish for sport fishermen.

Carassius langsdorfii is a very interesting fish because, Carassius langsdorfii is almost all female. We can see Carassius langsdorfii at Kitagawa-town, Ino-town, Kahoku-town, Noichi-town in Kochi. We can see Carassius langsdorfii at kochi in October for April. Asexual reproduction occurs almost exclusively in single-celled organism, but Carassius langsdorfii is one of the creatures that do asexual reploduction. What’s more, Carassius langsdorfii do sexual reproduction too. It is wonderful. Carassius langsdorfii are eaten various regions.

Carassius rangsdorfii are loved in various region in Japan. Carassius langsdorfii do asexual reproduction. But there are one problem that problem is speciation. Asexual reproduction equal no-change fly’s character. So Crassius langsdorfii can’t manage for change of nature. It is disadvantage at reflection of species. It’s interesting to see Carassius langsdorfii.

Seiyou tanpopo: Taraxacum officinale

You can say dandelions are truly familiar plant and see them almost everyday from spring to autumn. Taraxacum officinale, one of dandelions, belonging to the chrysanthemum family are a native European plant and have become a naturalized Japanese plant. They grow in waysides and so on. They are different from the native species in that its bract is warped in flowering season. They bloom yellow or white flower all the year around except winter.

Taraxacum officinale are classified in the chrysanthemum family, sympetalae, vascular plant. The chrysanthemum family plants are known as the most evoluted and divided plant. Peculiarity of the chrysanthemum family plants is that gathering small flowers look like one flower. About 400 species of Taraxacum mainly live between the Temperate Zone and subtropics and about 20 species of them live in Japan.

Taraxacum officinale originally lived in Europe, but spread to each place of Japan after the importation as food in the Meiji Era. They live in road, wayside and wasteland. It seems that they resist competition because they live in place that other species grow. They have many systems, for example, the small type living in lawn, the big type for food and each of them grows according to the environment in Europe. The reason why they spread all around Japan is many varieties of them was introduced again and again. The type lives in lawns, the type grows in wastelands, the type lives in meadows where tall plants live are different in strategy, so, it is better that you think they are separate each other if they live adjoining place.

Taraxacum officinale bloom flower for a long period regardless of season. Its flower stalk is straight, don’t grow branches, grow capitulum to apex. Its aggregate fruits are spread by wind. If they are cut and lost the over ground part, they regenerate the leaves by nutriment in the root. They take apogamy, so seeds ripen by oneself in spite of pollen. Therefore , they have strong propagative power and widened the habitat. At the area lingering a rural landscape, the native species have a power. So, it can be said that taraxacum officinale are a indicator species for urbanization. In Europe or the Middle East, taraxacum officinale have been eaten for a long time. Though they are a little bitter, they be eaten for salad. Moreover, its dehydrated roots are known as a substitute for coffee and have effect on an increase in one’s appetite, improvement in function of the liver and so on. In a part of U.S.A., people utilize its flower petals for materials of the wine. As a medicinal herb, they work on uric disease, anemia, jaundice, neurosis.

In Kochi, we can watch taraxacum officinale easily. It may they are most popular plant.

Enoki: Flammulina velutipes

Please picture the Enoki mushroom. You maybe picture a white mushroom with a slender body because that’s what they look like at the store. The enoki mushroom is different from other mushroom. But if you think that enoki sold in the stores are the original Enoki mushroom, they are not.

Enoki mushroom have been eaten by people since old times. So they have many names. Enoki mushroom is called Enokidake, Nametake, Namesusuki and Yukinosita in Japan. Many people call that white and slender mushroom is Enoki and put Enoki mushroom which are seasoned into bottle is Nametake.

Enoki mushroom’s scientific name is Flammulina velutipes. And they are one of kishimeji family (Tricholomataceae), such as shiitake mushroom and matsutake mushroom. They are kind of wood-rotting fungus.

Enoki mushroom are gregarious and parasitic on dead trees and stumps of deciduous trees or sprout up around them on ground after it rains well from early spring to late fall. And they can sprout up in snow so it is called Yukinosita.

Original Enoki mushroom are completely different in appearance from the store version. Original Enoki mushroom is normal mushroom shape. The cap of Enoki mushroom has a surface yellowish brown or dark brown and sliminess and first lamella is white then light brown, it becomes globular shape next grow horizontal. The stem of Enoki mushroom is yellowish brown or blackish brown and have short hair. Their smell is like iron rust.

Store Enoki mushroom is white at the whole. And the cap of there is much smaller than original and the stem is longer and slender than original. Why are store Enoki mushroom are different Original Enoki mushroom? The Enoki mushrooms in stores are grown by mushroom cultivation. And they are grown in no light, like bean sprouts. Fungi don’t need light to live and grow. But it is profitable on light to throw their spore to a long way. Because they grow to get to light, they are slender and long body.

If mushroom sprout up in your garden in winter, it may be Enoki mushroom . But most people don’t think they are Enoki mushroom. And if you try to teach them, many people would not believed. Why don’t they believe? I think that we are not interested in things they put into thier mouths.

Shiemeji: Lyophyllum Shimeji

Shimeji is shaped like mushroom. It has an umbrella and a handle. Shimeji is a general term of mushroom of small to medium size. Mainly, Shimeji is classified. Lyophyllum Shimeji, although it is sometimes classified mushroom of Tricholomataceae.

Shimeji are three varieties: Lyophyllum Shimeji, Lyophyllum fumesum, and Hypsizigus marmoreus. Lyophyllum Shimeji is the smallest of the three. Hypsizigus marmoreus is the largest of the three. Lyophyllum fumesum is born earlier than Lyophyllum Shimeji. Shimeji is an edible mushroom. Another name of Lyophyllum Shimeji is “Daikokushimeji”. Another name of Lyophyllum fumesum is “Senbonshimeji”. It was named “Senbonshimeji” because the mushroom looks like the head of Buddha. Birthplace of this name is Kyoto. Hypsizigus marmoreus was called “Honshimeji” until recently. Lyophyllum Shimeji is one of the most edible fungi which have good taste. Lyophyllum fumesum is one of the most popular as edible fungi. Lyophyllum fumesum is nice crisp and feel good on the tongue. Hypsizigus marmoreus is nice crisp and has good taste. Umbrella’s color of Lyophyllum Shimeji is mixed gray and brown. Handle’s color of Lyophyllum Shimeji is white. Umbrella’s color of Lyophyllum fumesum is mixed gray and white. Handle’s color of Lyophyllum fumesum is white or light gray. Umbrella’s color of Hypsizigus marmoreus is whitish and reddish gray. Handle’s color of Hypsizigus marmoreus is white. Umbrella of Lyophyllum Shimeji is 2~8 cm. The smallest of Lyophyllum fumesum’s umbrella is 5 mm. The largest of Lyophyllum fumesum’s is 10 cm. Umbrella of Hypsizigus marmoreus is 4~15 cm.

Lyophyllum Shimeji is distributed in the whole of Japan. Lyophyllum fumesum is distributed in the whole of Japan to the Temperate Zone of the northern hemisphere. In Japan, it is distributed from Hokkaido to Kyushu. Hypsizigus marmoreus distribute whole of Japan to the Temperate Zone of the northern hemisphere. In Japan, it is distributed from Hokkaido to Kyushu.

Lyophyllum Shimeji live Konara tree and Akamatsu ( Japanese red pine) in autumn. Lyophyllum fumesum live broadleaf tree and Matsu in summer to autumn (July to September). Lyophyllum fumesum tend to live in the same place. Hypsizigus marmoreus live in dead trees of broadleaf of beech in autumn. Hypsizigus marmoreus is mushroom which grows individually. So it is opposite to Nameko mushroom which live in same beech. Usually, many mushrooms are parasitic on plants, dead plants and dead trees. On the other hand, Lyophyllum Shimeji is parasitic on the roots of trees. Lyophyllum Shimeji gets nourishment and give water and inorganic nourishment. Lyophyllum fumesum is parasitic on the roots of trees, too.

Lyophyllum Shimeji are rare. Lyophyllum Shimeji is fungi that cover roots. Its cultivation is difficult, so it is expensive. Lyophyllum fumesum has low frequency of outbreak, so it decreases. Hypsizigus marmoreus is an excellent fungi. It can be boiled, baked, fried. So it is active cultivated. Hypsizigus marmoreus grows and takes in nourishment from dead trees. So artificial cultivation is easier than Lyophyllum Shimeji.

These Shimeji are distributed in each place of Japan. But recently, natural these Shimei become rare or decreased. So it is difficult for us to see natural these Shimeji. However, some of them can be cultivated by us. And, these Shimeji are sold at many store. So we can see them easily.

Maitake: Grifola frondosa

There are a lot of mushrooms all over the world and there are a lot of species of Maitake, for example, Shiromaitake, Tonbimaitake, and Choreimaitake. Shiromaitake often live upon a beech tree. Tonbimaitake often live upon beech and mizunara trees.

There are a lot of food value in Maitake. For example, vitamin D, naiashin, zinc, mineral, dietary fiber.There are two ways of cultivation. One is Genboku cultivation. Another one is Kinshou cultivation. Kinshou cultivation is cheaper than Genboku cultivation. Since 1990, Kinshou cultivation is prevail because of the easily and cheaply technique.

Grifola frondosa belongs to the Funji Basidiomycota Hymenomycetes Aphyllophorales Poloyporaceae Grifola frondosa. It ranges from warm temperature zone to northern up one temperature zone. It is widely distributed in whole Japan and north of the Northern Hemisphere.

In autumn, it often grows in roots of parasited tree from the latter part of September to the first ten days of October. The thread of bacteria can grow in the range of temperature from 5 to 35 ℃ and exist in the range of best temperature from 25 to 30 ℃ . Also , the child fruit can live in the range of temperature from 18 to 22℃ and exist in the range of best temperature from 15 to 20 ℃. The thread of bacteria shows best growth in the range of pH from 4.4 to 4.9. And, the width of the sawdust , the concentration of carbon dioxide while it growing , humidity , the amount of light, the wavelength of light are important for the quality of Maitake .

The child fruit form mass and grow. It often be found direct over 50 centimeter and weight of over 10 kilogram. Maitake is parasitic in the big tree of stub of beech forest and cause the bacteria to the roots.

In Kochi Prefecture , it is discovered in forest which show paragraph 4 . Basically , there are exist in all over the Kochi Prefecture . Especially, in the forest from the latter part of September to the first ten days of October.