Eringi: Pleurotus eryngii

Eringi is a kind of mushroom. It is a relatively new kind of mushroom. It is famous cooking ingredient Also, mushroom is used as medicine. It is used in Chinese medicine mainly. However, there is the bad aspect by human. It is a kind of having poison. Poisonous mushrooms are said to have 5000 species in Japan. It is eat when come out various symptom. However, it is judged very difficult have a poison. Insects eat mushrooms.

The mushrooms increase by sporogenesis. At first a spore is formed. When it grows up, it jump out. Then land in the favorite place. After that it germinates and grows up. This is a child of the mushrooms. When this grows up, it became a mushroom.

Eringi is cultivation performed in Japan. It explained the procedure. At first, prepare the lump bacteria of Eringi. It soaked into water. If around 30 minutes pass , it throw away water. It put in a bowl. It added some water. Set it to 20 degrees Celsius.

Mycelium occurs a few days. 7 ~ 10 days increases the mycelium. Process will appear in a few days later. That child will mushroom. Then grow over time. After some growth, give the air. Can be harvest a few days later. This can be done at home. It was first held in Aichi in 1990. The first was a series of failures. But now is different. Artificial cultivation of mushroom has been established.

Mushrooms grow in the shade and moist. Most of mushrooms grow itself in the ground. However, some mushrooms grow itself inside the ground. The mushrooms shape is different.

However, mushroom has a very important role in ecosystem. Mushroom belongs to fungi. The fungi can analyze the low molecular compound. Other creatures, low molecular compound cannot analyze. Without fungi,influence reflected on ecosystem. The mushroom is very important by ecosystem. Also, insect that nest in mushrooms such as snails and flies and ants. An ant, grows mushrooms. The ant is called Hakiriari. They are grows mushrooms. Then, to feed it. These cultivation are done by most of mushrooms.

Eringi comparatively cheaply in a supermarket. Eringi is well edible in Japan. It is import or a cultivation article for sale almost. More Eringi grows wild around the Mediterranean Sea. Also, Eringi grow wild in the steppe climate area.
However, Japan has been actively cultivating it. In Kochi, it can be found at Kuroshio Town, which is very famous for Eringi cultivation.

This mushroom has weak fragrance. However, it is filling and therefore it is very popular. It is used for French food and Italian food. Eringi has value very high nutritional value that it retains even when heated. It is eating when can a lifestyle-related disease prevent. Also, it is effective in diet therapy. Surprisingly, it is also effective in preventing cancer.

Tsugasarunokosikake: Fomitopsis pinicoia

This bracket mushroom is said to look like a stool for a monkey is hard and woody and they grow from the trunk of a tree or large shrub. It is a member of the “polypore,” or bracket mushroom group. T Its scientific name is the Fomitopsis pinicoia . Japanese name is tugasarunokosikake.

The Fomitopsis pinicoia thickness is 15 centimeter and diameter is 30 centimeter. these big polypores can grow to a thickness of 20 centimeter diameter to 50 centimeter Its surface color is reddish brown or grayish brown . they are a wood rotting fungus. As a result, forestry workers dislike them . A kind of polypore is sold as a health food an the Internet . A kind of polypore is used a herbal medicine . Polypore has diuretic effect and is used in medicine. Coriolus versicolor has suppressed cancer .

There are five varieties of the family Polyporaceae: Phellinus igniarius, Rigidoporus ulmarius , Coriolus versicolor Laricifomes officinalis and Fomitopsis pinicoia. Their family belongs to the order of Aphyllophrales, class Hymenomycetes, phylum Basidiomcota, kingdom Fungii.

Phellimus igniarius is diameter 10 ~ 25 centimeter and biggest is diameter 50 centimeter. Fomitopsis pinicoia is smaller then the Rigidoporus ulmarius . Coriolus versicolor is diameter 2 ~ 5 centimeter and a thickness of 1 ~ 2 millimeter . Its surface color is black , grayish brown and yellowish brown . Their color are Various ring spot .

Laricifomes officinalis is 15 centimeter tall . A cold remedy and A stomachache remedy are in afolk medicine . but Laricifomes officinalis has a poison .

Its distributioh is a conifer of trunk or a conifer of dfallen tree in north hemisphere Temperate Zone .

In Kochi, Fomitopsis olivacea does white rot to Japanese chinquapin . Fomitopsis olivaceae is found in Tosa City . T Mt. Ishidate is a good place to see polypore.

Enoki: Flammulina velutipes

Please picture the Enoki mushroom. You maybe picture a white mushroom with a slender body because that’s what they look like at the store. The enoki mushroom is different from other mushroom. But if you think that enoki sold in the stores are the original Enoki mushroom, they are not.

Enoki mushroom have been eaten by people since old times. So they have many names. Enoki mushroom is called Enokidake, Nametake, Namesusuki and Yukinosita in Japan. Many people call that white and slender mushroom is Enoki and put Enoki mushroom which are seasoned into bottle is Nametake.

Enoki mushroom’s scientific name is Flammulina velutipes. And they are one of kishimeji family (Tricholomataceae), such as shiitake mushroom and matsutake mushroom. They are kind of wood-rotting fungus.

Enoki mushroom are gregarious and parasitic on dead trees and stumps of deciduous trees or sprout up around them on ground after it rains well from early spring to late fall. And they can sprout up in snow so it is called Yukinosita.

Original Enoki mushroom are completely different in appearance from the store version. Original Enoki mushroom is normal mushroom shape. The cap of Enoki mushroom has a surface yellowish brown or dark brown and sliminess and first lamella is white then light brown, it becomes globular shape next grow horizontal. The stem of Enoki mushroom is yellowish brown or blackish brown and have short hair. Their smell is like iron rust.

Store Enoki mushroom is white at the whole. And the cap of there is much smaller than original and the stem is longer and slender than original. Why are store Enoki mushroom are different Original Enoki mushroom? The Enoki mushrooms in stores are grown by mushroom cultivation. And they are grown in no light, like bean sprouts. Fungi don’t need light to live and grow. But it is profitable on light to throw their spore to a long way. Because they grow to get to light, they are slender and long body.

If mushroom sprout up in your garden in winter, it may be Enoki mushroom . But most people don’t think they are Enoki mushroom. And if you try to teach them, many people would not believed. Why don’t they believe? I think that we are not interested in things they put into thier mouths.

Shiemeji: Lyophyllum Shimeji

Shimeji is shaped like mushroom. It has an umbrella and a handle. Shimeji is a general term of mushroom of small to medium size. Mainly, Shimeji is classified. Lyophyllum Shimeji, although it is sometimes classified mushroom of Tricholomataceae.

Shimeji are three varieties: Lyophyllum Shimeji, Lyophyllum fumesum, and Hypsizigus marmoreus. Lyophyllum Shimeji is the smallest of the three. Hypsizigus marmoreus is the largest of the three. Lyophyllum fumesum is born earlier than Lyophyllum Shimeji. Shimeji is an edible mushroom. Another name of Lyophyllum Shimeji is “Daikokushimeji”. Another name of Lyophyllum fumesum is “Senbonshimeji”. It was named “Senbonshimeji” because the mushroom looks like the head of Buddha. Birthplace of this name is Kyoto. Hypsizigus marmoreus was called “Honshimeji” until recently. Lyophyllum Shimeji is one of the most edible fungi which have good taste. Lyophyllum fumesum is one of the most popular as edible fungi. Lyophyllum fumesum is nice crisp and feel good on the tongue. Hypsizigus marmoreus is nice crisp and has good taste. Umbrella’s color of Lyophyllum Shimeji is mixed gray and brown. Handle’s color of Lyophyllum Shimeji is white. Umbrella’s color of Lyophyllum fumesum is mixed gray and white. Handle’s color of Lyophyllum fumesum is white or light gray. Umbrella’s color of Hypsizigus marmoreus is whitish and reddish gray. Handle’s color of Hypsizigus marmoreus is white. Umbrella of Lyophyllum Shimeji is 2~8 cm. The smallest of Lyophyllum fumesum’s umbrella is 5 mm. The largest of Lyophyllum fumesum’s is 10 cm. Umbrella of Hypsizigus marmoreus is 4~15 cm.

Lyophyllum Shimeji is distributed in the whole of Japan. Lyophyllum fumesum is distributed in the whole of Japan to the Temperate Zone of the northern hemisphere. In Japan, it is distributed from Hokkaido to Kyushu. Hypsizigus marmoreus distribute whole of Japan to the Temperate Zone of the northern hemisphere. In Japan, it is distributed from Hokkaido to Kyushu.

Lyophyllum Shimeji live Konara tree and Akamatsu ( Japanese red pine) in autumn. Lyophyllum fumesum live broadleaf tree and Matsu in summer to autumn (July to September). Lyophyllum fumesum tend to live in the same place. Hypsizigus marmoreus live in dead trees of broadleaf of beech in autumn. Hypsizigus marmoreus is mushroom which grows individually. So it is opposite to Nameko mushroom which live in same beech. Usually, many mushrooms are parasitic on plants, dead plants and dead trees. On the other hand, Lyophyllum Shimeji is parasitic on the roots of trees. Lyophyllum Shimeji gets nourishment and give water and inorganic nourishment. Lyophyllum fumesum is parasitic on the roots of trees, too.

Lyophyllum Shimeji are rare. Lyophyllum Shimeji is fungi that cover roots. Its cultivation is difficult, so it is expensive. Lyophyllum fumesum has low frequency of outbreak, so it decreases. Hypsizigus marmoreus is an excellent fungi. It can be boiled, baked, fried. So it is active cultivated. Hypsizigus marmoreus grows and takes in nourishment from dead trees. So artificial cultivation is easier than Lyophyllum Shimeji.

These Shimeji are distributed in each place of Japan. But recently, natural these Shimei become rare or decreased. So it is difficult for us to see natural these Shimeji. However, some of them can be cultivated by us. And, these Shimeji are sold at many store. So we can see them easily.

Tengutake: Amanita pantherina

Tengutake(Scientific name is Amanita pantherina) is a kind of toadstool. Its body is about 20~30 cm and color is white. It has a brown cap and there are many white grains on the surface of cap.

Tengutake belongs to the Tengutake family, Tengutake genus. Kinds of Tengutake family are Benitengutake, Tamagotengutake, and Tamagotake etc. Benitengutake has a red cap, and Benitengutake’s poison is weaker than that of Tengutake and Tamagotengutake. But Benitengutake is famous on book and TV game etc. Tamagotengutake has a white cap and a very strong poison will kill a person. Tamagotake has an orange cap, but Tamagotake doesn’t have poison. Therefore, it is edible. Tamagotake’s cap is round first. When it grows up, it opens and is depressed.

Tengutake grow in the forests in the temperate zone from summer to fall. Tengutake grow mainly Japanese red pine forests, Konara, and Kunugi forests etc.

If you eat Tengutake, it cause the runs, vomit, and hallucinations. And it may cause unconsciousness. Tengutake’s poison have a effect to kill fly. So, Tengutake is called Haetoritake.

If you walk in the forests and find a mushroom that you can’t identify, don’t take and eat it.

Maitake: Grifola frondosa

There are a lot of mushrooms all over the world and there are a lot of species of Maitake, for example, Shiromaitake, Tonbimaitake, and Choreimaitake. Shiromaitake often live upon a beech tree. Tonbimaitake often live upon beech and mizunara trees.

There are a lot of food value in Maitake. For example, vitamin D, naiashin, zinc, mineral, dietary fiber.There are two ways of cultivation. One is Genboku cultivation. Another one is Kinshou cultivation. Kinshou cultivation is cheaper than Genboku cultivation. Since 1990, Kinshou cultivation is prevail because of the easily and cheaply technique.

Grifola frondosa belongs to the Funji Basidiomycota Hymenomycetes Aphyllophorales Poloyporaceae Grifola frondosa. It ranges from warm temperature zone to northern up one temperature zone. It is widely distributed in whole Japan and north of the Northern Hemisphere.

In autumn, it often grows in roots of parasited tree from the latter part of September to the first ten days of October. The thread of bacteria can grow in the range of temperature from 5 to 35 ℃ and exist in the range of best temperature from 25 to 30 ℃ . Also , the child fruit can live in the range of temperature from 18 to 22℃ and exist in the range of best temperature from 15 to 20 ℃. The thread of bacteria shows best growth in the range of pH from 4.4 to 4.9. And, the width of the sawdust , the concentration of carbon dioxide while it growing , humidity , the amount of light, the wavelength of light are important for the quality of Maitake .

The child fruit form mass and grow. It often be found direct over 50 centimeter and weight of over 10 kilogram. Maitake is parasitic in the big tree of stub of beech forest and cause the bacteria to the roots.

In Kochi Prefecture , it is discovered in forest which show paragraph 4 . Basically , there are exist in all over the Kochi Prefecture . Especially, in the forest from the latter part of September to the first ten days of October.

Aokabi: Blue Mold

Blue mold is very useful for human life, such as Antibiotic, foodstuffs like a Gorgonzola and Roquefort cheese the composition of citric acid or nucleic acid is utilized widely as useful bacterium. Still, if mold grow on our food, people feels of displeasure, but blue mold don’t make a mycotoxin, that is why, they are a completely harmless mold. Continue reading Aokabi: Blue Mold

Shiitake mushrooms

Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) classified Hiratake department and Matsuouzi genus. There are three species Donko, Kouko and Kousin. Shitake is so healthy. Recently metabolic syndrome is increasing. Shiitake is low calorie and has vitamin D2. That takes down blood pressure, prevents for stroke and arteriosclerosis. That reduce cholesterol by Eridanin. Vitamin D2 promote calcium to born. So it prevent for osteoporosis. Continue reading Shiitake mushrooms