Tosaken: Kochi’s Mastiff

Fighting dogs are used dog fighting game as one of recreation of people. In Japan, the recreation is held in Kochi and Akita. The dog which is used dog fighting game is mainly Mastiff species. But the past, the dog of Spitz species was used.

Fighting dogs are two varieties Tosaken and Akitaken. Tosaken is crossbred of Shikokuken, Bull terrier, Maedaken, Great dane, Old English Mastiff and Bulldog. Tosaken is a Japan’s dog which is popular as fighting dogs. The dog which was used as fighting dogs at the first is a dog of Shikoku. The last part of the Edo period, Tosaken was made and was mixed with various European breed of dog. So, in Meiji period, moreover, strong fighting dogs were made. Tosaken is tolerant and friendly. Tosaken has heart of attack. Its life is 10~12 years. Tosaken is large-sized. Its quality of hair is coarse and short. Its physique is muscularity. The skin is slack because it is bit. Its weight is about 90~91 kg. Color is red, apricot, black, forn and burindol. Tosaken and Akitaken’s withers heights are similar. It is about 60 cm. Tosaken’s weight is bigger than Akitaken’s. Tosaken is about 90 kg. Akitaken is about 54 kg. Tosaken and Akitaken’s life are similar. It is about 10~12 years.

Now, Tosaken distribute each place of Japan. But in the early Showa period, it was found in Tosa of Kochi.

Originally the Tosaken improved a Japanese dog used for hunting in mountains of Kochi as the world strongest dogfight became the biggest Japanese dog. The blood relationships such as a bulldog, a pointer, a mastiff, the Great Dane are introduced by a process of the improvement. It is only male dog to appear in the ring and divide it into the class every weight and face.

Tosaken is usually quiet dog, but becomes the dangerous dog depending on discipline. Tosaken fights in backyard of house or the vacant land, then Tosaken misunderstand fight at all time and anyplace. Such Tosaken became nervous character that cautious on everyday take a walk. Then Tosaken may bite the thing which broke out to face by mistake. Therefore it is importance that Tosaken discipline to fight in sumo ring.

Tosaken center in Katsurahama of Kochi holds fights between Tosakens. In the Tosaken center direct Tosaken where common man can’t enter division cage look and prepare for issue certificate of attestation that natural monument of Kochi.

You can encounter Tosaken if I go to the Tosaken center of Katsurahama.

Shiemeji: Lyophyllum Shimeji

Shimeji is shaped like mushroom. It has an umbrella and a handle. Shimeji is a general term of mushroom of small to medium size. Mainly, Shimeji is classified. Lyophyllum Shimeji, although it is sometimes classified mushroom of Tricholomataceae.

Shimeji are three varieties: Lyophyllum Shimeji, Lyophyllum fumesum, and Hypsizigus marmoreus. Lyophyllum Shimeji is the smallest of the three. Hypsizigus marmoreus is the largest of the three. Lyophyllum fumesum is born earlier than Lyophyllum Shimeji. Shimeji is an edible mushroom. Another name of Lyophyllum Shimeji is “Daikokushimeji”. Another name of Lyophyllum fumesum is “Senbonshimeji”. It was named “Senbonshimeji” because the mushroom looks like the head of Buddha. Birthplace of this name is Kyoto. Hypsizigus marmoreus was called “Honshimeji” until recently. Lyophyllum Shimeji is one of the most edible fungi which have good taste. Lyophyllum fumesum is one of the most popular as edible fungi. Lyophyllum fumesum is nice crisp and feel good on the tongue. Hypsizigus marmoreus is nice crisp and has good taste. Umbrella’s color of Lyophyllum Shimeji is mixed gray and brown. Handle’s color of Lyophyllum Shimeji is white. Umbrella’s color of Lyophyllum fumesum is mixed gray and white. Handle’s color of Lyophyllum fumesum is white or light gray. Umbrella’s color of Hypsizigus marmoreus is whitish and reddish gray. Handle’s color of Hypsizigus marmoreus is white. Umbrella of Lyophyllum Shimeji is 2~8 cm. The smallest of Lyophyllum fumesum’s umbrella is 5 mm. The largest of Lyophyllum fumesum’s is 10 cm. Umbrella of Hypsizigus marmoreus is 4~15 cm.

Lyophyllum Shimeji is distributed in the whole of Japan. Lyophyllum fumesum is distributed in the whole of Japan to the Temperate Zone of the northern hemisphere. In Japan, it is distributed from Hokkaido to Kyushu. Hypsizigus marmoreus distribute whole of Japan to the Temperate Zone of the northern hemisphere. In Japan, it is distributed from Hokkaido to Kyushu.

Lyophyllum Shimeji live Konara tree and Akamatsu ( Japanese red pine) in autumn. Lyophyllum fumesum live broadleaf tree and Matsu in summer to autumn (July to September). Lyophyllum fumesum tend to live in the same place. Hypsizigus marmoreus live in dead trees of broadleaf of beech in autumn. Hypsizigus marmoreus is mushroom which grows individually. So it is opposite to Nameko mushroom which live in same beech. Usually, many mushrooms are parasitic on plants, dead plants and dead trees. On the other hand, Lyophyllum Shimeji is parasitic on the roots of trees. Lyophyllum Shimeji gets nourishment and give water and inorganic nourishment. Lyophyllum fumesum is parasitic on the roots of trees, too.

Lyophyllum Shimeji are rare. Lyophyllum Shimeji is fungi that cover roots. Its cultivation is difficult, so it is expensive. Lyophyllum fumesum has low frequency of outbreak, so it decreases. Hypsizigus marmoreus is an excellent fungi. It can be boiled, baked, fried. So it is active cultivated. Hypsizigus marmoreus grows and takes in nourishment from dead trees. So artificial cultivation is easier than Lyophyllum Shimeji.

These Shimeji are distributed in each place of Japan. But recently, natural these Shimei become rare or decreased. So it is difficult for us to see natural these Shimeji. However, some of them can be cultivated by us. And, these Shimeji are sold at many store. So we can see them easily.

Amenbo: Gerridae

Gerridae Aquarius paludum paludum, which have long legs for living a life on the water, includes Hemiotera Gerridae. In Japanese, the name is Amenbo but there are many kinds elsewhere, and it is classified in different ways. The appearance is different by a course, but the basic structure of the body such as a feather or a way of speaking is the same as Hemiotera. Gerridae has stink gland in a body that smell like candy, from which the Japanese name is derived (ame is candy).


The larva and imago are flesh-eating. They eat insects which fell into surface of the water by injecting digestive juice and body sucking the fluid. When Gerridae looks for game, it senses a small ripple occurs on the surface of the water and catches a position of the game.

Gerridae supports itself on its fore legs and hind legs and uses its middle leg to kick the surface of the water and move. The quick jump is possible by how to kick surface of the water. However, it uses all six legs to moves on foot like a land model.

There are many kinds of Gerridae inhabiting Japan. I took up three kinds in Gerridae. Aquarius elongates is biggest Gerridae in Japan and the length is 19-27mm. Not only the body but also a leg and the antennae are long. The length is markedly big in comparison with other markedly, and Gerridae. Aquarius elongates inhabit the gentle ponds and rivers of the flow and seen in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu for from May to October.

Aquarius paludum paludum are called Amenbo or Namiamenbo in Japanese. The length is 11-16mm and it seen commonly in Japan. Aquarius paludum paludum inhabit the gentle pond and marsh without the flow and it is seen from April to October. Geris lacustris length is 8-11mm small, Gerridae resembles Aquarius paludum paludum closely. The slight hair of the silver gray grows to both sides and the forewing of the prothoraces rear one. Geris lacustris inhabits gentle ponds and marsh, the puddle of the flow and it seen in Japan from May to October.

Gerridae is distributed widely from the tropical zone to the subarctic zone and it is an aquatic insect distributed over the various surfaces of the water the small puddle, pond, lake, river and sea. It the day of the early fall, it is seen making a big crowd. In winter, it enters the land and winter in the bottoms of fallen leaves. They mate from April to July.

The female diving underwater and carried a male on board and lays an egg to the stem of the waterweed. The egg hatches in about 10 days and larva molt five time to became imago.

Gerridae float on surface by surface tension. Water pollution by life drainage and seawall main tance, then surface tension weaken. Gerridae drown. So Gerridae is environmental work.

Because Gerridae habitation over a wide area, can be seen many watersides.

Tengutake: Amanita pantherina

Tengutake(Scientific name is Amanita pantherina) is a kind of toadstool. Its body is about 20~30 cm and color is white. It has a brown cap and there are many white grains on the surface of cap.

Tengutake belongs to the Tengutake family, Tengutake genus. Kinds of Tengutake family are Benitengutake, Tamagotengutake, and Tamagotake etc. Benitengutake has a red cap, and Benitengutake’s poison is weaker than that of Tengutake and Tamagotengutake. But Benitengutake is famous on book and TV game etc. Tamagotengutake has a white cap and a very strong poison will kill a person. Tamagotake has an orange cap, but Tamagotake doesn’t have poison. Therefore, it is edible. Tamagotake’s cap is round first. When it grows up, it opens and is depressed.

Tengutake grow in the forests in the temperate zone from summer to fall. Tengutake grow mainly Japanese red pine forests, Konara, and Kunugi forests etc.

If you eat Tengutake, it cause the runs, vomit, and hallucinations. And it may cause unconsciousness. Tengutake’s poison have a effect to kill fly. So, Tengutake is called Haetoritake.

If you walk in the forests and find a mushroom that you can’t identify, don’t take and eat it.

Mokkoku: Japanese Cleyera

Mokkoku is Japanese name and scientific name is Ternstroemia gymnanthera (Wright et Arn.) Sprague. This tree is evergreen high tree and grows to average of 15 meters height,moreover it becomes max 18 meters.The leaf is thick and smooth,also it blooms a white flower.It ripes in autumn and produces a red seed. For that reason,another named akaminoki and is used by everyone.

It is classificated, Platae・Magnoliophyta・Magnoliopsida・Theales・Theaceae・Ternstroemia・T.gymnanthera. 

It is distributed over Japanese islands including the South-West islands,Korean Peninsula southern part,Taiwan,India via China in the world. It is also distributed from the South Kanto region westward to Okinawa in Japan.It grows in a forest near sea of warm place. 

Leaf of mokkoku is length 3~7 centimeter and looks like a rice spoon.We do not see most of the leaf veins of the back side.The leafstalk is tinged with a red,and a flower of the white blooms in about July.Then,the flower has two kinds of a bisexual flower and the male flower. A bisexual flower is a stamen of one fold surround the pistil in a ring. The other,A male flower has stamen of three folds in a ring,and there are a lot of numbers. 

Also,a calyx and a petal are pounding five pieces to a flower together, there are two pieces of small bracts in the floral design upper part.The fruit is global,and it is fleshy substance.In autumn,it becomes ripe and forms a red seed inside.The bark includes tannin,and it becomes the dye of the dark brown.this is used in various uses. Mokokku it is planted as a garden tree and it is used well.The wood is hard and it is beautiful, materials on dark reddish-brown that it is used for a building,appliance materials,a comb. In addition, it is used in folk medicine: we collect leaves and dry it, boil it and drink afterward. It is effective against renal disease and a liver disease. Conventionally, these were classified in camellia department. But,as a result of having examined a gene,we understood that we were little different from the group of the camellia.and Theaceae was made newly.

There is the tree of a natural monument appointed to designated cultural assets in city of Tosashimizu in is considered to be a sacred tree of God, and it is still kept as such. When it is a near place, the front gate of Kochi university enters and turns right. We can look in bicycle parking lot neighborhood.

Nihonkanoshika: Capricornis crispus

Nihonnkamoshika is a kind of kamoshika. It is a endemic species in Japan. The scientific name is Capricornis crispus.

Nihonnkamoshika is Animalia Chordata Vertebrata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae Caprinae Rupicaprini Capricomis C.crispus. Kamashika are classified in the ten species. It is nihonkamoshika, taiwankamoshika, gouraru, sumatorakamoshika, shiroiwayagi, syamoa, gourudentakin, saiga, zyakouushi, chiruu. Nihonkamoshika is similar to shika, but it isn’t a true shika. It is Bovidae.


Nihonkamoshika’s habitat space is mountain from a low mountain zone to subalpine of Honshu, Shikoku, Kyusyu in Japan. They don’t live in Chugoku district. They have become extinct west of Hyogo in Honsyu. Moreover it is different in body and color in its habitat space. Nihonkamoshika in Honshu is bigger than Shikoku. The number of Shikoku and Kyusyu is decreasing now. Nihonkamoshika in Shikoku live in only Kouchi and Tokushima. They are about 1300 head.

Nihonkamoshika is 30~45 kg weight. The shoulder height is 70~75 cm, the trunk is 70~85 cm. The horn is black and about 15 cm. It has a sharp point and curved to back. There are a lot of bkackish brown and grayish brown in body color. But there are differences among individuals. Nihonkamoshika have four stomach for rumination. Under the eye, they have remarkabl gland. They secrete from gland and marking. The fur doesn’t let water through and humidity retention is high. Both male and female have horn. It doesn’t molt and grow new horn. It is impossible to distinguish male from female by horn or face or body size.

Nihonkamoshika are monogamus. They are curious and like a cliff. When they are chased by dogs, they run away to cliff. They have territory and usually act independently. Male and male or female and female don’t live in the same space. It is rare that more than three live closely. A child drifts away from its parents at one or two years. In autumn they copulate, in spring females have a babie. An average life is four years. The longest life is twenty years.

They mainly eat leaf in forest. In winter, they eat a winter bud and bark. They eat by uprooting plants because they don’t have upper teeth. They repeatedly a eat a small amount and move. They eat various plants, for example, ookamenoki, inuga, inutsuge, kaya, urahagusa, kometsuga, sugi, aoki, asunaro and so on. Nihonkamoshika are ruminants. They mainly graze early morning and evening. They often ruminate as they rest and sit down. So we tend to make a mistake to think that they become weak. However we have a problem that feeding damage by Nihonkamoshika. It is the causes of agriculture damage. Nihonkamoshika have been shot to extermination in Gifu and so on.

They inhabit mountainous region the eastern part of Kochi. We can see them in Wanpak Kochi. There are four Nihonkamoshika. They are Aki, Ken, Natsu and Tetsu.

Shyazikumo: Chara buraunii

There are very many creatures, amphibians, insects, microbes, water-weed and algae, in the common rice field in Japan. Do you know any other very similar to water-weed? The species name is Chara buraunii, and they are called “Charophyte” in English. Commonly algae shapes are a leaf like kelp, intertwined with a thin thread, single cells and so on, but the charophyte has an organ-like stems and leaves, so they are similar to water-weed. The form is that the stem that is 1 mm diameter and about 10 to 50 cm length and has nodes at which grow 8 to 11 twigs like leaves or stalks with whorled phyllotaxis. In Japan, the charophyte is called “Shyazikumo” meant “axle algae” the name of which comes from the stem and whorled phyllotaxis which are like a spindle and wheels.

Chara braunii

C. buraunii is kind of Chara species, and also belong to Chara and Characeae. Basically Chara has cortex, but C. buraunii is an exception in that it doesn’t have cortex. In Chara, there are many algae described in the red data book in Miyazaki prefecture or Fukui prefecture on one of Ministry of the Environment classified C. buraunii into “an endangered species Ⅱ” which means “species in danger of extinction is increasing”.

Charales species often live in shallow fresh water area like rice fields, but it can grow in relatively faint light areas like the bottom of lakes and marshes or a little dirty water. So, they make pure colony, “Charophyte area” in the bottom where other algae and water-weed can’t live. But the hardship to live in the area isn’t only for other algae and water-weed, but it’s also hard for the charophyte to live. If the water gets cloudy by water pollution, the sun light will not be able to reach the charophytes living in the area will die out. For that reason, there are some species that have already died out, hakonesyazikumo (Chara globularis var. hakonensis) etc. We can’t save the species that have already become extinct, but may be able to bring back the species that had briefly disappeared by water improvement, provided that the lake once they had lived, because sometimes the spore remained in the bottom of the lake.

Charophyte’s appearance is like water-weed that is seed plants, but its ecology is near to algae. Charophyte is kind of multi cellular algae that do not have vascular bundles and the regeneration used the spore, and has photosynthesis pigment which is chlorophyll a and b, so classify Chlorophyceae. The regeneration doesn’t use seed, but use spore that made from the gamete of male and female. Charophyte’s the antheridium and the archegonium has feature that are reddish.

Certainly, there are some endangered species in charales, but many species can be often seen in rice fields of Kochi prefecture. Particularly, we can see charales in the spring when fields are filled with water, about May in Kochi, to the end of summer. But the appearance is only water-weed that we often see, so I think that you probably aren’t interested to see it.

Nazuna: Shepard’s Purse

As one of the Japanese customs, there is a special rice porridge called “Nanakusagayu”. The reason why it is called “Nanakusagayu” is that the rice porridge includes 7 species of wild grasses. Nazuna is one of the wild grasses.

Nazuna’s height is 20 to40 cm as an adult organism, and the flowering season is from February to June in Japan. It has a lot of flowers, which are 3 mm in diameter. “Nazuna” is the Japanese name, and as another name, it is called “Penpengusa” or “Shamisengusa”. These name is related to Samisen (Japanese traditional stringed instrument). As a English name, it is called “Shepherd’s purse”, and the scientific name is “Capsella bursa-pastoris”.

In Japan, there are other species of plants which have “nazuna” at the end of their names. They are Gunbainazuna (Thlaspi arvense), Mamegunbainazuna (Lepidum viruginicum) and Inunazuna (Draba nemrosa) and so on, but their genetic names are not same as Nazuna’s one. Except for Nazuna, there are three species that have “Capsella” as their genetic names in Japan. They are Hosominazuna (Capsella bursa-pastoris Medik. var. bursa-pastoris ), Haatonazuna (Capsella sp.) and Ruberanazuna (Capsella rubella). They belong to Capsella genus, but they are an introduced species, so it shows that the species which belongs to Capsella genus is originally only Nazuna in Japan.

Nazuna is the wild grass that is distributed on temperate zone and subtropical zone of all over the world. In Japan, it is found on the whole country from Hokkaido to Okinawa, and occurs in fields, plantations and wayside, everywhere.

The life of Nazuna is as following. First, Nazuna’s seeds sprout at the beginning of winter. Then, they spend the winter with a special form called “Rosette”. When the spring comes, the stem starts growing. Finally, the flowers come out in early summer.

Winter is the season that is cruel for almost living things to live. Nazuna lives through the severe season. The reason why it can bear is its special form in winter, and it is called “Rosette”. Rosette shows a form such as flat-spreading leaves on the ground. The advantages of this form are that plants can stand the coldness of winter by pasting on the ground, and that plants can get much sunshine by spreading its leaves widely.

Nazuna is what is called a weed, so it doesn’t seem to have a special connection with other animals or plants in particular. Though it is not a biological connection, in Japan we sometimes gather Nazuna to eat. As a popular use, it is used for the Nanakusagayu mentioned above. It is also used for medicine. First, dry Nazuna in shade. Then, boil down, brew or char it. If you do the above, it will have effects for alleviation of fever, stomachache, high blood pressure, and a lot of illness. Though Nazuna is a weed, it has a close connection with Japanese.

If you would like to see Nazuna, take a walk in spring, and soon you can get it. Nazuna is a weed, and it is found anywhere. It is a familiar plant to us.


Fudaraku: Grateloupia lanceolata (Okamura) Kawaguchi

Grateloupia lanceolata (Okamura) Kawaguchi is a member of the Rhodophyceae, or red algae group.

The body is thick and firm. A short stalk appressorium with width is previously attached a little. It is vertical by appressorium. There are a lot zonal, oblong, and a kidney type etc. of the shape of the appressorium.

Moreover, it separates into two in the upper part of the appressorium, and there is the one that the point is pointed out, too. The origin of the scientific name originates the fact that it is flat, long and slender, and it is sharp ahead. The medullary layer consists of a close filamentous cell, it queues up from small spheroidal the cortex in an oval close cell in the integument layer, and a little large cell piles up in the ranging endodermis layer. It is necessary to distinguish between the `turu turu` and `tanbanori` difficultly only by the feeling the surface. It is called according to the region `akahanba`, and it is used for food.

Grateloupia lamceolata belongs to the Rhodophyta Gigartinales Halymeniaceae.

It is widely distributed in Japanese whole areas except Hokkaido such as the Honshu, Shikoku and Kyusyu. Moreover,it is distributed not only Japan but also in a Korean peninsula. Inside harbor, it often becomes a primary.

It grows in a calm environment like the basin and the littoral region.When the tides pull it most in a quiet place of the wave, it grows on rocks in the vicinity near the surface of the sea. Moreover, it lives also in the part always soaked in seawater. It is necessary to correspond to strong waves right under the ebb tide line etc. though such a place is a secure setting for the living thing. In the inside the harbor, it often becomes dominant.

It is possible to grow all the year round. The group of the cystocarp appears on the surface of the body and it becomes a macula pattern when maturing. Origin of Japanese name, comes from spots and showing `Fudarake` there is this macula. There is considerably a viscosity. Length is 20~50cm, and one that becomes 1m in length usually. Width is 7~15cm. Surface is a smooth leather . The living body is very varied with red, yellow, and green. It often is near the coast at the turn of the season from summer to autumn and it goes up. It adheres to paper when making it to a drying.

In Kochi Prefecture, it is possible to confirm it in all seas. Confirming it is especially easy, and most beautiful one is Usa.

Maitake: Grifola frondosa

There are a lot of mushrooms all over the world and there are a lot of species of Maitake, for example, Shiromaitake, Tonbimaitake, and Choreimaitake. Shiromaitake often live upon a beech tree. Tonbimaitake often live upon beech and mizunara trees.

There are a lot of food value in Maitake. For example, vitamin D, naiashin, zinc, mineral, dietary fiber.There are two ways of cultivation. One is Genboku cultivation. Another one is Kinshou cultivation. Kinshou cultivation is cheaper than Genboku cultivation. Since 1990, Kinshou cultivation is prevail because of the easily and cheaply technique.

Grifola frondosa belongs to the Funji Basidiomycota Hymenomycetes Aphyllophorales Poloyporaceae Grifola frondosa. It ranges from warm temperature zone to northern up one temperature zone. It is widely distributed in whole Japan and north of the Northern Hemisphere.

In autumn, it often grows in roots of parasited tree from the latter part of September to the first ten days of October. The thread of bacteria can grow in the range of temperature from 5 to 35 ℃ and exist in the range of best temperature from 25 to 30 ℃ . Also , the child fruit can live in the range of temperature from 18 to 22℃ and exist in the range of best temperature from 15 to 20 ℃. The thread of bacteria shows best growth in the range of pH from 4.4 to 4.9. And, the width of the sawdust , the concentration of carbon dioxide while it growing , humidity , the amount of light, the wavelength of light are important for the quality of Maitake .

The child fruit form mass and grow. It often be found direct over 50 centimeter and weight of over 10 kilogram. Maitake is parasitic in the big tree of stub of beech forest and cause the bacteria to the roots.

In Kochi Prefecture , it is discovered in forest which show paragraph 4 . Basically , there are exist in all over the Kochi Prefecture . Especially, in the forest from the latter part of September to the first ten days of October.

Inoshishi: Wild Boar

Wild boar’s scientific name is Sus scrofa. The wild boar is an animal classified into the wild boar family wild boar belonging. Wild boar’s nose is a very sensitive, nervous animal.The wild boar has subspecies of about 30 kinds in the world.

Two subspecies the Japan wild boar and the Ryukyu wild boar are distributed in Japan. Wild boars live in the forest and meadow where the weeds grow on the low mountain belt and where the plain grows thickly, and likes place where the water place is near. Wild boar food habitat are places where the plant that has grown in the forest is underground stem, fruits, and bamboo shoot. The animal eats many insect kind, the earthworm, the river crab, and the snake, etc. according to the change of the seasons.

Moreover, it is likely to infest in the vicinity of the house for farm products. Birds and small mammals, etc. Wild boar’s are also sometimes eaten. However, it eats at time when the corpse had dropped by chance and time alone when another doesn’t have the eaten one at all.

The wild boar has the excellent motor nerve that the body cannot imagine. It is possible to run the speed at about 45 km/h highest. In addition, an adult mammal of 70kg has been observed to run-up and jump over the bar of the height of 121cm an the experiment by the Kinki chugoku Shikoku agricultural research center. However, it is not good at one with the stereoscopic effect. A hedge put up diagonally cannot be jumped over.

The power of wild boar’s nose is very strong, and can move as much as 50-60kg stone even with the female by 70kg or more in the male.Moreover, it has ability to swim though like dog paddle level. The wild boar that swims in the sea in Japan’s Inland Sea is frequently witnessed.

Recently, the number in Japan of wild boars that infest in the village is in the increasing tendency. Especially, doing the agriculture and forestry industry damage becomes a problem in under-populated areas and the senior citizen village. In Hiroshima Prefecture and Hyogo Prefecture, etc., it infests even in the vicinity of the residential quarter, where it ruins the garden of the private house and eats the garbage of the road. It is known to cause personal suffering to harm man biting happen frequently, too.

The wild boar is hard to control because it has an advanced learning ability though there is control methods such as sounding the firecracker sound, and using the oil smell. It is too expensive and not realistic to put up steel or electrified fence to prevent it completely. Kure City and Takehara City, etc. in Hiroshima Prefecture provided the subsidy for the installation of the protective grille, and giving the wild boar food for the first time in the whole country enacted the prohibited wild boar ordinance to Kobe City.

Many wild boar lives in the mountains near Nakayama in Kochi Prefecture.

Hirame: Japanese flatfish

The Japanese flatfish, or Olive flounder, is a kind of the fish that belongs to the large tooth flounder suborder of the flatfish family. Its scientific name is Paralichthys olivaceus. The two eyes show it is lying on its right side with both eyes on the the left side.

Moreover, it has a feature that the mouth and teeth are big. It is distributed in the Pacific Ocean west (From the coast in the Kurile Islands, karahuto, Japan, and a Korean peninsula, etc. to the South China Sea). The flatfish grows to 1m in total length and about 10kg in weight in the maximum. The flatfish figure has both as right and left side types.

The flatfish lives in sands and the mud lake in the coast at night. It often conceals itself in sand and mud, only the head has been put out in daytime, and the color of the body is made the same color as bottom of the sea when not diving in sand.

The flatfish eats the fingerling, shellfishes, and the mussel worms that live chiefly at the bottom of the sea. The flatfish dives deeply in winter. And, it goes to the shoal of about 20cm in depth for the spawning time from March to July.

The egg is a floatage. The child was born from the egg is lucky also with normal eyes as long and slender as a usual fish. The movement of right eyes starts by about 1cm in the total length. It becomes the same type as parents when becoming about 2.5cm. It becomes an adult fish in about three years. Flatfish’s longevity is short for about several years.

The flatfish is high grade ingredients used for slices of raw fish and the sushi in Japan. Moreover, growth is quick, and geostationary at the bottom of the sea. Therefore, because oxygen is not very needed and seawater not made dirty, cultivation is active. It will be expected to circulate by a further low price considering the cultivation cost in the future.

The individual that doesn’t reach a certain size is discharged again for the resource conservation, and the discharge of the fry is done. The flatfish into which the fry is released doesn’t disappear by the pattern that the belly side is black even if growing up, and is called pandabirame. There are a lot of people who insists on the domination of the natural product who insist that the momentum at food influences the eating quality. The season of the flatfish is winter. It is said that the summer time after eggs is laid loses taste.

The flatfish is best seen in the Niyodo river in Kochi Prefecture.