The Toad

by T. Kawauchi

Introduction

Toad is a generic name of four kind of frogs. The four kinds are “Asiatic toad”, “Japanese toad”, ” Japanese stream toad “, and “Marine toad. ” The marine toad is a foreign toad. A toad is any of a number of species of amphibians in the order Anura characterized by dry, leathery skin (usually brownish-colored), short legs, and wart-like parotoid glands.

Description & Taxonomy

The scientific name of Japanese toads is Bufo japonicas Temminck & Schlegel, 1838. Size is about 7-15cm. The color is usually a reddish brown. There are four aliases. The alias is”Hiki”,”Gamagaeru”,”Gama”,”Ibogaeru” and “Senjo”. Limbs are comparatively short, and the enlarged body moves slowly. The Japanese toad’s web doesn’t develop so much. Other frogs can jump more though than Japanese toad is a little. The mucus of white poisonous like milk is secreted from a lot of Ivo who puts out a strong venom from a big parotoid that exists in back of the head, and exists in the skin, especially the back. The body is defended from the foreign enemy due to this poison, and a harmful bacillus and the helminth are prevented at the same time. Touching by bare-handed should avoid with Japanese toads. If one touches Japanese toad, it is necessary to wash your hands well. Because the venom of the parotoid might gush mightily, this requires noting. The cry of toad is like a bird call. Longrety is about 10 years. The toad’s tongue expands.

Range & Ecology

The individual of Japanese toad has been discovered from Kinki in the southwest part of San-in and Shikoku, Kyushu, Iki, Goto islands, Yakushima Island, Tanegashima, Tokyo, and Sendai. The habitat of Japanese toad is plains, a field, a forest, a high ground and around the private house etc. The time of breeding is from October to May. It also has the change also depending on conditions such as regions and climates. A lot of individuals gather in the pond and the bog in the breeding area, and male’s fight over the female is done. The female lays 10000 eggs or more by an egg laying once.

However, it is only one individual of only handful that becomes a frog. It takes about three months to transform the tadpole and to become small Gael.

Use & Conservation

A dry venom is called senso in the Chinese medicine because there is the accentuation action of heart function and hemodynamics, that is, cardiotonic action in the venom and is used as a herbal medicine. The forest in which it usually lives and the water place for breeding are needed for this seed to live. However, those environments are divided into parts by the environmental destruction and the number is decreasing. The individual migrating for the egg laying often dies by the traffic accident. However, the strong individual that seems that it human work distributes it probably because of might be seen in the city part in dryness. It hatches from a rice field etc. , a comparatively noticeable place the spawning ground, and the egg laying in the group and it is bred.

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Bio2011

Students of Kochi National University's English for Biology class, 2011

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